What is a brake master cylinder or brake pump and what is it used for?

What is a brake pump or brake master cylinder and what is it used for?

Present within the vehicle's braking system, the brake pump, also known as the master cylinder, converts mechanical force into hydraulic pressure, thanks to which our car can slow down gradually or suddenly.

Within the braking system of a vehicle there are a number of key parts or components that provide safety for both the driver and passengers. The brake pump is the part that helps our vehicle to stop at any time and when necessary.

In this post by Frenkit, a company specialising in the manufacture and distribution of brake components for passenger cars and light vehicles, we explain what a master cylinder is and what does a master cylinder do.

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What is a brake master cylinder

The brake master cylinder is the component responsible for pressurising the fluid or maintaining pressure throughout the vehicle's hydraulic circuit. A fundamental component as well as the clutch in a car.

When we press the brake pedal, the mechanical force we exert is multiplied by the action of the brake servo and transmitted to the brake pump piston, which moves by compressing the hydraulic fluid. As the hydraulic fluid is incompressible and thanks to Pascal's principle, the force is transmitted uniformly throughout the fluid until it reaches the brake caliper piston, which moves the brake pads against the brake disc to generate the braking force.

The car's brake pump has several openings through which a plunger, located inside the pump, moves and compresses the hydraulic fluid. Thanks to the action of a spring, the plunger returns to its initial position when the force exerted on the brake pedal ceases.

What is a brake pump or master cylinder and what is it used for. 1

By means of the expansion vessel or reservoir, the difference in volume of the brake fluid is absorbed.

There are two types of master cylinders on the market, two-chamber and single-chamber:

  1. Tandem brake pump. It has two pistons placed one after the other. Since the standard requiring the use of independent working circuits in the brake system came into force, brake pumps have two completely separate pressure chambers, one for each circuit, which are actuated by means of two pistons.
  2. Simple brake pump. In single pumps, the piston inside captures the movement of the pedal when braking. These brake pumps are fed with brake fluid and pass inside the master cylinder.

[Find out whether it´s better to repair a brake master cylinder or replace it  completely]


What is the function of a master cylinder?

The car's brake pump is responsible for transforming and converting the mechanical force of the pressure exerted by the driver when pressing the brake pedal into hydraulic pressure. Through pipes, the pressure is transmitted to the pistons of the brake calipers, which in turn move the brake pads against the brake disc and can stop or slow down the vehicle.

In addition, the hydraulic pressure is transmitted via hoses that are included in the brake system of our vehicle. With the help of the brake booster, we amplify the pressure in the circuit on the wheel cylinders and the brake caliper. In this way, the brake system is gradually slowed down until the vehicle comes to a halt and stops moving.

The brake pump is an important part of the car. If you notice symptoms from the brake master cylinder that may indicate that it is not working properly, you may need to replace it.

Whether you are a private individual who wants to fix your own car or a professional and highly qualified workshop, at Frenkit, a brake parts distributor, we offer you a wide range of products for your vehicle: brake caliper repair kits, brake caliper repair kits, brake caliper repair kits, clutch pump kits, etc. If you don't know how to search, we also show you how to identify brake pump references.

For more information about our products, visit our website where you can buy your spare parts for your vehicle through our new online shop.
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Tags: Brake pumps or master cylinders